Simulation of Raman amplifier using TrueWave RS active fiber with uniform bandwidth in C+L telecommunication windows
Keywords:optical amplification, forced Raman scattering, FRS, fiber Raman amplifier, Raman gain profile, stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, Gaussian decomposition, fiber amplifier simulation, multiwave pumping
The paper presents the simulation results of a broadband fiber Raman amplifier with uniform gain band covering C+L telecommunication windows in the standard TrueWave RS fiber. Main advantages of the fiber amplifier with active medium based on the single-mode TrueWave RS type fiber were analyzed by comparing this amplifier with the erbium doped fiber amplifier. A simplified model for the analytical description of the ultrawideband fiber Raman amplifier with multiwave pumping has been proposed. In this study, the problem of simulating the uniform bandwidth of working frequencies of fiber Raman amplifier in (C+L)-band telecommunication windows is solved in two stages: first, we obtain an almost exact analytical approximation of the Raman gain profile in the frequency region of Stokes shift above 20 THz that at the second stage significantly simplifies the gain band equalization in configuration with multiple pumping wavelengths. It has been shown that the gain ripple can be dramatically reduced from more than 3 to 0.2 dB by increasing the number of pumping sources M from M = 2 to M = 6, however, further increase of M has almost no effect on the improvement of gain band irregularity.
L. Galdino et al., “Amplification schemes and multi-channel DBP for unrepeatered transmission,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2221–2227, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2016.2521002.
P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, “Fiber-based phase-sensitive optical amplifiers and their applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 367, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/AOP.382548.
H. Takara et al., “120.7-Tb/s MCF-ROPA unrepeatered transmission of PDM-32QAM channels over 204 km,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1473–1478, 2015, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2015.2397009.
T. Mizuno, H. Takara, K. Shibahara, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, “Dense space division multiplexed transmission over multicore and multimode fiber for long-haul transport systems,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1484–1493, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2016.2524546.
H. Ono, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, “Pump power reduction in optical fiber amplifier for WDM-interleaved multi-core/multi-fiber system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 1163–1166, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2017.2707470.
I. Syuaib, M. Asvial, E. T. Rahardjo, “Modeling of ultra-long span bidirectional Raman transmission link using three-segment hybrid fiber core structure,” Photonics, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 2, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6010002.
D. Bayart, “Optical amplification,” in Undersea Fiber Communication Systems, Elsevier, 2016, pp. 119–164.
P. A. Korotkov, G. S. Felinskyi, “Forced-Raman-scattering-based amplification of light in one-mode quartz fibers,” Ukr. J. Physics. Rev., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103–169, 2009, uri: http://archive.ujp.bitp.kiev.ua/files/reviews/5/2/r05_02_01pu.pdf.
V. I. Grygoruk, I. V. Serdeha, G. S. Felinskyi, P. A. Korotkov, “Fiber Raman lasers and amplifiers of optical radiation,” in Interaction of Physical Fields with Nanostructured Materials, Kyiv: Karavella, 2018, pp. 62–128.
S. Fu et al., “Review of recent progress on single-frequency fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 34, no. 3, p. A49, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.34.000A49.
D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 27, no. 11, p. B63, 2010, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.27.000B63.
M. N. Zervas, C. A. Codemard, “High power fiber lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 219–241, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2321279.
E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, “Medium-power CW Raman fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1022–1028, 2000, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/2944.902151.
V. Grygoruk, P. Korotkov, G. S. Felinskyi, Nonlinear and Laser Processes in Optical Fibers [in Ukrainian]. Kyiv: Kyiv University, 2008.
W. Shi, Q. Fang, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, “Fiber lasers and their applications [Invited],” Appl. Opt., vol. 53, no. 28, p. 6554, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.006554.
P. A. Korotkov, G. S. Felinskyi, “Fiber Raman CW lasers,” Ukr. J. Phys. Rev., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 126–150, 2006.
P. Zhou et al., “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 34, no. 3, p. A29, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.34.000A29.
B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, G. Rademacher, Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, “319 Tb/s Transmission over 3001 km with S, C and L band signals over >120nm bandwidth in 125 μm wide 4-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2021, uri: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9489785.
“OFS. TrueWave®RS Optical Fiber,” Newsletter OFS Marketing Communications, 2021. https://fiber-optic-catalog.ofsoptics.com/documents/pdf/TrueWaveRSLWP-120-web.pdf.
J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, M. E. Lines, “A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 24–26, 2002, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/68.974149.
G. Felinskyi, V. Grygoruk, I. Serdeha, “Modelling of gain profiles and Raman lasing in TiO2/GeO2-doped silica fibres,” Ukr. J. Phys. Opt., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.3116/16091833/21/1/15/2020.
L. Lundberg, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, “Power consumption analysis of hybrid EDFA/Raman amplifiers in long-haul transmission systems,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2132–2142, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2017.2668768.
Y. V. Krutin, A. V. Korchak, M. I. Reznikov, G. S. Felinskyi, “Modeling of multiwave pumped fiber Raman amplifier for C+L telecommunication windows,” in 2020 IEEE 40th International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO), 2020, pp. 319–322, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ELNANO50318.2020.9088755.
R. H. Stolen, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, J. P. Gordon, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 1159, 1989, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.6.001159.
D. Hollenbeck, C. D. Cantrell, “Multiple-vibrational-mode model for fiber-optic Raman gain spectrum and response function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 2886, 2002, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.19.002886.
H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, “Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 530–532, 1999, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/68.759388.
M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 948–950, 2001, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/68.942656.
P. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Huang, J. Liu, “A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 206–208, 2003, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2002.806086.
G. E. Walrafen, P. N. Krishnan, “Model analysis of the Raman spectrum from fused silica optical fibers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 21, no. 3, p. 359, 1982, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.21.000359.
I. V. Serdeha, V. I. Grygoruk, G. S. Felinskyi, “Spectroscopic features of Raman gain profiles in single-mode fibers based on silica glass,” Ukr. J. Phys., vol. 63, no. 8, p. 683, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/ujpe63.8.683.
J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1918–1939, 1962, doi: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.127.1918.