Criss-cross metamaterial-substrate microstrip antenna with enhanced gain and bandwidth
Metamaterials have been an attractive topic for research in the field of electromagnetics in recent years. In this paper, a criss-cross structure has been suggested; this shape has been inspired from the famous Jerusalem Cross. The software analysis of the proposed unit cell structure has been validated experimentally thus giving negative response of ε and µ. Following this, a microstrip patch antenna based on suggested metamaterial has been designed. The theory and design formulas to calculate various parameters of the proposed antenna have been presented. The design of a metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized for providing of an improved gain, bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are compared and presented in table and response-graphs. Also it has been observed that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are smaller compared to its conventional counterpart operating in the same frequency band. The response of the patch antenna has been verified experimentally either. The important part of the research was to develop metamaterial based on some signature structures and techniques that would offer advantage in terms of bandwidth and multiple frequency operation, that is demonstrated in the paper. The unique shape suggested in this paper provides an improvement in bandwidth without reducing the gain of the antenna.
LEE, RICHARD Q.; LEE, K.-F. Experimental study of the two-layer electromagnetically coupled rectangular patch antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., v.38, n.8, p.1298-1302, Aug. 1990, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/8.56971.
ROBERT, B.; RAZBAN, T.; PAPIERNIK, A. Compact amplifier integration in square patch antenna. Electron. Lett., v.28, n.19, p.1808-1810, Sept. 1992, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19921153.
ALEXOPOULOS, N.G.; JACKSON, D.R. Fundamental superstrate (cover) effects on printed circuit antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., v.32, n.8, p.807-816, Aug. 1984, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.1984.1143433.
HUYNH, T.; LEE, K.F. Single-layer single-patch wideband microstrip antenna. Electron. Lett., v.31, n.16, p.1310-1312, Aug. 1995, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19950950.
GUPTA, VIJAY; SINHA, SUMIT; KOUL, SHIBAN K.; BHAT, BHARATHI. Wideband dielectric resonator-loaded suspended microstrip patch antennas. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., v.37, n.4, p.300-302, May 2003, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.10900.
YANG, FAN; ZHANG, XUE-XIA; YE, XIAONING; RAHMAT-SAMII, Y. Wide-band E-shaped patch antennas for wireless communications. IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., v.49, n.7, p.1094-1100, Jul. 2001, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/8.933489.
MAJID, H.A.; ABD RAHIM, M.K.; MASRI, T. Microstrip antenna’s gain enhancement using left-handed metamaterial structures. PIER M, v.8, p.235-247, 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIERM09071301.
BUELL, K.; MOSALLAEI, H.; SARABANDI, K. A substrate for small patch antennas providing tunable miniaturization factors. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., v.54, n.1, p.135-146, Jan. 2006, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2005.860329.
ALICI, KAMIL BORATAY; OZBAY, EKMEL. Electrically small split ring resonator antennas. J. Appl. Phys., v.101, n.8, p.083104, 2007, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2722232.
PIRHADI, A.; KESHMIRI, F.; HAKKAK, M.; TAYARANI, M. Analysis and design of dual band high directive EBG resonator antenna using square loop FSS as superstrate layer. PIER, v.70, p.1-20, 2007, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIER07010201.
BUROKUR, S.N.; LATRACH, M.; TOUTAIN, SERGE. Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., v.4, p.183-186, 2005, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2005.850797.
INAMDAR, KIRTI; KOSTA, Y.P.; PATNAIK, S. A criss-cross metamaterial based electrically small antenna. Int. J. Eng. Res. Applications, v.3, n.3, p.004-007, May-June 2013, URL: http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol3_issue3/B33004007.pdf.
ZIOLKOWSKI, R.W. Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., v.51, n.7, p.1516-1529, Jul. 2003, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2003.813622.
WANG, JIAFU; QU, SHAOBO; MA, HUA; XIA, SONG; YANG, YIMING; LU, LEI; WU, XIANG; XU, ZHUO; WANG, QIAN. Experimental verification of anisotropic three-dimensional left-handed metamaterial composed of Jerusalem Crosses. PIERS Online, v.6, n.1, p.31-35, 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2529/PIERS090825095520.
KATKO, ALEXANDER REMLEY. Artificial negative permeability based on a fractal Jerusalem Cross. Undergraduate Honors Thesis. Ohio State University, 2009.
INAMDAR, KIRTI; KOSTA, Y.P.; PATNAIK S. A criss-cross shaped left-handed metamaterial. Eur. J. Sci. Res., v.104, n.2, p.261-269, Jun. 2013.
SMITH, D.R.; VIER, D.C.; KOSCHNY, Th.; SOUKOULIS, C.M. Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials. Phys. Rev. E, v.71, p.036617, 2005, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617.