Flexible substrate based printed wearable antennas for wireless body area networks medical applications (review)
Keywords:wearable printed antenna, wireless body area network, WBAN, on-body, flexible substrate, wearable antennas for medical applications
The wireless body area networks (WBAN) enable to communicate with the on-body wireless devices and systems. For on-body applications, the key requirement for the antennas is the antennas flexibility to mount the antennas on the body. Wearable antennas are fabricated on a flexible substrate to make these antennas suitable for mounting on the human body. Due to the wearable feature of these antennas, they are used in many on-body applications. The wearable characteristic also makes these antennas suitable for many on-body medical applications. This paper presents the technical review of the WBAN, WBAN frequency bands, wearable antenna fundamentals, flexible substrate characteristics, design and development of wearable antennas for medical applications. The wearable antennas are fabricated using the fabrics. The review of the material properties of various flexible substrates is given in detail. Due to the presence of the air in the gaps of fabrics, the dielectric constants of these materials are very low. Detailed analysis of antenna performance due to flexible substrate material characteristics is also discussed. The developments of wearable antennas for WBAN medical applications are presented. The paper also focuses on the design considerations, fabrication methods, challenges, and proposed solutions for the wearable printed antennas.
E. G. Lim et al., “Wearable textile substrate patch antennas,” Eng. Lett., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 94–101, 2014, uri: http://www.engineeringletters.com/issues_v22/issue_2/EL_22_2_08.pdf.
T. U. Pathan, R. K. Karn, “Research of wearable textile antennas for WBAN applications,” Int. J. Eng. Adv. Technol., vol. 8, no. 6S3, pp. 1347–1351, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.F1237.0986S319.
S. Ayed, L. Chaari, A. Fares, “A survey on trust management for WBAN: Investigations and future directions,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 21, p. 6041, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216041.
“Wireless Body Area Network-IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN Basics.” https://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/WBAN-IEEE-802-15-6-tutorial.html.
J. C. Wang, “Review of wearable antennas for WBAN applications,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 474–480, 2016, uri: http://www.iaeng.org/IJCS/issues_v43/issue_4/IJCS_43_4_10.pdf.
C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. New Jersey: Wiley, 2016, uri: https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Antenna+Theory%3A+Analysis+and+Design%2C+4th+Edition-p-9781118642061.
P. Kumar, “Computation of resonant frequency of gap-coupled ring microstrip antennas,” Int. J. Autom. Comput., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 671–675, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11633-014-0814-5.
I. Ang, B. L. Ooi, “An ultra-wideband stacked microstrip patch antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1659–1665, 2007, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mop.22555.
M. Ihamji, E. H. Abdelmounim, J. Zbitou, H. Bennis, M. Latrach, “Design of a miniature microstrip antenna with DGS structure for RFID tag,” in Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 2020, pp. 88–99.
M. Mabaso, P. Kumar, “A dual band patch antenna for bluetooth and wireless local area networks applications,” Int. J. Microw. Opt. Technol., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 393–400, 2018, uri: https://www.ijmot.com/VOL-13-NO-5.aspx.
J. Borah, T. A. Sheikh, S. Roy, “Compact CPW-fed tri-band antenna with a defected ground structure for GSM, WLAN and WiMAX applications,” Radioelectron. Commun. Syst., vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 319–324, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.3103/S0735272716070050.
P. Kumar, “Design of low cross-polarized patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications,” Int. J. Commun. Antenna Propag., vol. 7, no. 4, p. 265, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v7i4.10435.
K. K. Kumar, M. Pavani, “Design of a compact rectangular patch antenna using defected ground structure,” Int. J. Commun. Antenna Propag., vol. 7, no. 4, p. 282, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v7i4.12389.
P. Kumar, “Single feed dual polarized patch antennas for ultra-wideband applications,” Int. Rev. Electr. Eng., vol. 14, no. 4, p. 284, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.15866/iree.v14i4.16154.
W. J. Krzysztofik, T. N. Cao, “Metamaterials in application to improve antenna parameters,” in Metamaterials and Metasurfaces, IntechOpen, 2019.
K. Inamdar, Y. P. Kosta, S. Patnaik, “Criss-cross metamaterial-substrate microstrip antenna with enhanced gain and bandwidth,” Radioelectron. Commun. Syst., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2015, doi: https://doi.org/10.3103/S073527271502003X.
B. T. P. Madhav, A. V. Chaitanya, R. Jayaprada, M. Pavani, “Circular monopole slotted antenna with FSS for high gain applications,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 9022–9028, 2016.
B. W. Ngobese, P. Kumar, “A high gain microstrip patch array for 5 GHz WLAN applications,” Adv. Electromagn., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 93–98, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.7716/aem.v7i3.783.
S. G. Kirtania et al., “Flexible antennas: a review,” Micromachines, vol. 11, no. 9, p. 847, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090847.
R. Salvado, C. Loss, R. Gonçalves, P. Pinho, “Textile materials for the design of wearable antennas: a survey,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 15841–15857, 2012, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s121115841.
S. Zhu, R. Langley, “Dual-band wearable textile antenna on an EBG substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 926–935, 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2009.2014527.
N. Singh, A. K. Singh, V. K. Singh, “Design & performance of wearable ultra wide band textile antenna for medical applications,” Open Eng., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 0, 2015, doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/eng-2015-0012.
S. M. Shah, N. F. A. Kadir, Z. Z. Abidin, F. C. Seman, S. A. Hamzah, N. Katiran, “A 2.45 GHz semi-flexible wearable antenna for industrial, scientific and medical band applications,” Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 15, no. 2, p. 814, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v15.i2.pp814-822.
A. Sivabalan, P. Jothilakshmi, “Micro strip wearable O-shaped reconfigurable antenna for medical applications,” Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng., vol. 8, no. 1, 2019.
A. Y. I. Ashyap, Z. Zainal Abidin, S. H. Dahlan, H. A. Majid, G. Saleh, “Metamaterial inspired fabric antenna for wearable applications,” Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., vol. 29, no. 3, p. e21640, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mmce.21640.
B. Mohamadzade, R. M. Hashmi, R. B. V. B. Simorangkir, R. Gharaei, S. Ur Rehman, Q. H. Abbasi, “Recent advances in fabrication methods for flexible antennas in wearable devices: state of the art,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 2312, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102312.
Y. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Feng, H. R. Khaleel, “Fabrication and Measurement Techniques of Wearable and Flexible Antennas,” 2014, pp. 7–23.
M. Nisha, S. Sai Shweta, G. T. Selvi, A. M. Bose, “Wearable textile patch antenna: with co-planar waveguide (CPW) feed for medical applications,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 67–70, 2018, uri: http://ijaseat.iraj.in/paper_detail.php?paper_id=12445.
R. Kumar, J. Singh, B. S. Sohi, “Hexagonal shaped body wearable textile antenna on EBG substrate material,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Mob. Comput., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 260–266, 2016, uri: https://www.ijcsmc.com/docs/papers/June2016/V5I6201667.pdf.
H. Dawood, M. Zahid, H. Awais, S. Shoaib, A. Hussain, A. Jamil, “A high gain flexible antenna for biomedical applications,” in 2020 International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE), 2020, pp. 1–4, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECCE49384.2020.9179186.
C. Du, G. Jin, “A compact CPW-fed band-notched UWB-MIMO flexible antenna for WBAN application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1046–1058, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09205071.2020.1868354.
A. Y. I. Ashyap et al., “Via-less electromagnetic band-gap-enabled antenna based on textile material for wearable applications,” PLOS ONE, vol. 16, no. 1, p. e0246057, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246057.
A. Alomainy, Y. Hao, D. M. Davenport, “Parametric study of wearable antennas with varying distances from the body and different on-body positions,” in IET Seminar on Antennas and Propagation for Body-Centric Wireless Communications, 2007, pp. 84–89, doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/ic:20070552.
J. Li, Z. Nie, Y. Liu, L. Wang, Y. Hao, “Evaluation of propagation characteristics using the human body as an antenna,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 12, p. 2878, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122878.
D. Wen, Y. Hao, M. O. Munoz, H. Wang, H. Zhou, “A compact and low-profile MIMO antenna using a miniature circular high-impedance surface for wearable applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 96–104, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2017.2773465.
M. M. Khan, “Compact planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) for smart wireless body sensor networks,” in Proceedings of 7th International Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications, 2020, p. 8253, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-7-08253.
A. R. H. Alhawari, A. H. M. Almawgani, A. T. Hindi, H. Alghamdi, T. Saeidi, “Metamaterial-based wearable flexible elliptical UWB antenna for WBAN and breast imaging applications,” AIP Adv., vol. 11, no. 1, p. 015128, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0037232.
G. K. Das, S. Basu, B. Mandal, D. Mitra, R. Augustine, M. Mitra, “Gain‐enhancement technique for wearable patch antenna using grounded metamaterial,” IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag., vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 2045–2052, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2020.0083.
D. Wen, Y. Hao, H. Wang, H. Zhou, “Design of a wideband antenna by manipulating characteristic modes of a metallic loop,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 513–518, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mop.31560.
D. Wen, Y. Hao, H. Wang, H. Zhou, “Design of a MIMO antenna with high isolation for smartwatch applications using the theory of characteristic modes,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 1437–1447, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2018.2884849.